Bivariate = linear relationship between TWO variables.

**Pearson correlation** = **r** = parametric, assume normal distribution (more powerful)

Spearman’s = ρ (rho) = nonparametric ranked data

Analyze -> Correlations -> Bivariate

- Move variables into box on right
- Tick “Pearson” or “Spearman”
- In output look at the 2 numbers that are the same and significant.

**Scattergram**: to check it’s linear

Graphs -> Legacy Dialogs -> Scatter/Dot

- Click “Simple Scatter” and move the variables to the axes (it doesn’t matter which one goes where)
- To get line of best fit, right-click -> edit content -> Elements -> fit line at total

**Phi and Cramer’s V** = only look at phi (φ) = both variables dichotomous (2 categories)

Analyze -> Descriptive Stats -> Crosstabs

- Click “Stats” and choose “Phi and Cramer’s V”
- Click “Cells” and tick “Observed” and “expected”
- Check how variables are coded because a negative correlation could mean a positive relationship if coded non-intuitively (low numbers = high levels of variable).